CBD For All Pets
There is no doubt that CBD has helped countless people with their medical struggles. It has helped with chronic pain, arthritis, cancer, anxiety, depression, PTSD, discomfort, stomach issues, autism, alzheimers, dementia, and paranoia. The list goes on- without providing any psychoactive effects. Studies have found the endocannabinoid system (eCBs) that we all carry is made up of a series of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We use these naturally produced endocannabinoids to help regulate body functions, allowing us to take advantage of the medicinal properties that cannabis offers. The cannabinoids that are found in the cannabis plant are known as phytocannabinoids. Humans clearly benefit from CBD, but what about animals such as cats, dogs, and other lovable pets? Amazingly, all animals have an endocannabinoid system and CBD works on it the same way for all mammals1, allowing them to take advantage of CBD as well. Beneficial effects of cannabinoids in these animals have been reported e.g. for disorders of the cardiovascular system, cancer treatment, pain treatment, disorders of the respiratory system, or metabolic disorders and suggest the usefulness of further research in this direction5. The most assuring part is that CBD for dogs (and other pets) is legal and safe2.
The Endocannabinoid System (eCBs) in Animals:
According to Dr. Gary Richter, a holistic vet based out of Oakland, California, “CBD affects the endocannabinoid system, which is a system of neurotransmitters in the body that helps balance and maintain normal body functions. CBD has much the same effect in animals as it does in people.” All animals have an endocannabinoid system including vertebrates and invertebrates3. The complex system is made up of CB1 receptors which are linked to the central nervous system, and CB2 receptors that are linked to the peripheral nervous system, which are mainly involved in functions of the immune system3. CB2 receptors are also involved in the control of inflammatory processes5. CBD stimulates both receptors, primarily the CB2 receptors, to help with body and immune regulation known as homeostasis. Homeostasis can affect everything from sleep, appetite, pain, inflammation, memory, mood, and even reproduction.3 The Endocannabinoid System (eCBs) helps bring balance to the body. As a result, it is no surprise that scientists have observed changes in eCBs activity in a number of diseases. Everything from neurodegenerative disorders to rheumatoid arthritis and cancer have shown changes in endocannabinoid levels and greater receptor expression. This suggests that the eCBs may be an effective target for restoring balance in the body and promoting good health, both for humans and animals.3
The Wide Range of Conditions CBD Helps With:
“Cannabinoids have a myriad of pharmacological effects and the beneficial impact of different cannabinoids has been proven and documented many times in various laboratory/companion animals.”5 CBD for dogs is the most common interest when it comes to research, articles, products, infographics, and testimonials because dogs seem to require more psychological and medical attention. Recent research studies can show the location of cannabinoid receptors in dogs, showing similarities with the endocannabinoid system in humans. Mammals are common in many ways, especially the way our endocannabinoid systems works, resulting in shared medicinal relief from cannabinoids such as CBD. Anxiety can be an extremely hard time and there is little out there to help dogs who are dealing with it. That is why CBD oil for dogs (and other pets) with anxiety is an excellent option for owners in these times of stress.4 According to Linda Parker, author of Cannabinoids and the Brain,
"[CBD] has a broad pharmacological profile, including interactions with several receptors known
to regulate fear and anxiety-related behaviors, including CB1, 5-HT1A, and TRPV1”.6 She goes on to state that the effects of CBD are "mediated by its action on 5-HT1A receptors in the midbrain dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG), a region integral to anxiety that controls autonomic and behavioral responses to threat.” In addition, some cannabinoids were shown to act not only at cannabinoid receptors but also at serotonin 5-HT3 receptors. This complexity of interactions explains both the large number of physiological effects of cannabinoids and the pharmacological influences of cannabinoid products5.
CBD’s therapeutic potential has been demonstrated in the treatment of many disorders including pain, inflammation, cancer, asthma, glaucoma, spinal cord injury, epilepsy, hypertension, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, depression or feeding-related disorders, and many others5. All major organs have CB1 or CB2 receptors which CBD and other cannabinoids can remedy and maintain, keeping the physiological health of animals stable and regulated while reducing negative conditions of organs such as stomach, intestines, heart, lungs, bladder, kidneys, liver, brain, as well as cardiovascular, hormonal gland problems, and even organ failure.
Dosing with CBD varies with every animal of different physical size and chemical makeup. CBD is typically dosed by weight in kg, with smaller animals needing less than large animals because of their faster metabolism and smaller amount of endocannabinoid receptors. The more endocannabinoids an animal has, the more cannabinoids (CBD) is required to fulfill each receptor located just about everywhere in the body. When CBD is consumed, it tends to direct itself to the area that needs attention, such as a wound, muscle, or a part of the brain, basically heat-seeking problems in the body that need to be solved. The worse the disease or condition is, the more CBD is required to overpower the negativity. For example, reducing anxiety with CBD requires a small dose, while a tumor or seizure will require a significantly larger dose to combat the intensity of the disease or condition. For smaller doses, sources recommend administering 0.2mg-0.5mg/kg. Larger doses are up to 1.0mg-5.0mg/kg for more severe cases. On a similar note, an effective dose of CBD for a human is 2mg-22mg (not weight-specific) depending on the severity of the condition it is treating6. The effects of CBD last for around 4 hours, so re-dosing throughout the day is required for chronic treatment, up to 4 times daily. Overdosing on CBD is not possible; no one and nothing has died from consuming too much CBD because of its natural, non-toxic values. The important thing to know is that in extremely high doses, CBD can make your pet drowsy, can lower blood pressure, and can interfere with metabolizing other medications if taken together.
Although CBD is safe in nearly every case, taking CBD with other medications can have a positive or negative reaction depending on the prescription drug a pet is taking. This can occur since medications are metabolized by enzymes in the liver. CBD is also metabolized this way, by the Cytochrome P450 enzymes released in the liver to break down the cannabinoid. The Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for metabolizing over 60% of the drugs prescribed for people and animals. Drug interactions include:
- Cholesterol decreasing drugs, known as “statins”
- Blood pressure medications
- Certain kinds of anxiety-inhibiting drugs as well as other psychotropics
- Some antihistamines
- Certain corticosteroids
CBD interacts with these other drugs because CBD inhibits the CP450 enzymes, preventing and extending (slowing) the metabolization of other medications. The best way to prevent drug interactions is to administer CBD at a different time than other medications. All drug interactions are not negative. In fact, sometimes an interaction may allow for a beneficial effect of one medication with fewer side effects to enhance the action of another medication that has more serious side effects. Be sure to research specific drug interactions before combining CBD and other medications.
To sum all of this information up, CBD is safe for pets and every pet has an endocannabinoid system that is made of CB1 and CB2 receptors throughout their whole body. CBD connects to these receptors to produce the therapeutic effects that CBD and cannabis are known for. One of the important effects is homeostasis: the regulation of the body which includes everything from sleep, appetite, pain, inflammation, memory, mood, and reproduction. CBD’s therapeutic potential has been demonstrated in the treatment of many conditions including pain, inflammation, cancer, asthma, glaucoma, spinal cord injury, epilepsy, hypertension, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, depression or appetite-related disorders, and many others. When CBD is consumed, it tends to direct itself to the area that needs attention, such as a wound, muscle, or a part of the brain.
For smaller doses, sources recommend administering 0.2mg-0.5mg/kg. Larger doses are up to 1.0mg-5.0mg/kg for more severe cases. Typical dosing should be administered up to 4 times daily. Cannabinoids such as CBD use the same enzymes that break down other medications, so be careful when mixing CBD with an existing medication regimen. Space out the time between medication and CBD to be safe. High doses of CBD mainly interfere with medications using the Cytochrome P450 enzymes. CBD is the safest, most effective alternative to common pharmaceuticals and is used for pets mainly for anxiety control and other conditions listed above. When purchasing a CBD product, be sure you are looking for a quality product that is preferably full spectrum and has a high bioavailability rate. Green Life Innovations focuses on that, specializing in CBD Tinctures for pets, humans, and multiple cannabinoid formulas that have high bioavailability. For all your CBD needs and questions, contact us through Facebook or GreenLifeInnovations.com.
6.Cannabinoids and the Brain by Linda A. Parker